13 ways to kill a mockingbird


Works Cited

American Film Institute.  AFI’s 100 Years, 100 Lists Web Page.  14 March 2005


Arnold, Martin.  passage a l’acte (1992).  Martin Arnold Films:  Cinemnesis.  Videocassette. 

Dist. Sixpack Film. 

Benjamin, Walter.  “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction.” Illuminations

Ed. Hannah Arendt.  Trans. Harry Zohn.  New York:  Shocken, 1969.  217-251.

Brother, Can You Spare a Dime? Dir. Philippe Mora.  DVD.  Image Entertainment, 1999.

Carlson, Marvin. "Theatrical Performance: Illustration, Translation, Fulfillment, or

Supplement?" Theatre Journal 37 (1985):  5-11.

Chura, Patrick.  “Prolepsis and Anachronism:  Emmett Till and the Historicity of To Kill a

Mockingbird.”  Southern Literary Journal 32.2 (2000):  1-26.

Clark, Katerina, and Michael Holquist.  Mikhail Bakhtin.  Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1984.

Clarke, Jay.  “Mockingbird Still Flies High in Small Town of Monroeville.”  Milwaukee Journal

Sentinel 8 Sept. 2002:  H6.

Crespino, Joseph.  “Response to Letters to the Editors.”  In “The Redemption of Atticus Finch.” 

Southern Cultures 6.4 (2000): 4.

  1. -- -.  “The Strange Career of Atticus Finch.”  Southern Cultures 6.2 (2000):  9-29.

Edwards, Paul .  “Adaptation: Two Theories.” Text and Performance Quarterly 27.4 (2007): 369-77.

Flynt, Wayne.  “Letter to the Editors.”  In “The Redemption of Atticus Finch.”  Southern

Cultures 6.4 (2000):  2-3.

Freedman, Monroe.  “Atticus Finch, Esq., R.I.P.”  Legal Times (24 Feb. 1992):  20.

- - -.  “Finch, The Lawyer Mythologized.”  Legal Times (18 May 1992):  25.

Garfield, James.  “User Comments.”  passage a l’acte Web PageThe Internet Movie Database.  14

March 2005 < http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0107786/>.

Gunn, Joshua.  Unpublished section, edited out of “Mourning Speech: Haunting and the Spectral

Voices of Nine-Eleven.”  Text and Performance Quarterly 24.2 (2004):  91-114.

Hutcheon, Linda.  A Theory of Adaptation.  New York: Routledge, 2006.

Jimson, Marcus. “Letter to the Editors.”  In “The Redemption of Atticus Finch.”  Southern

Cultures 6.4 (2000): 1-2. 

Johnson, Claudia Durst.  To Kill a Mockingbird: Threatening Boundaries.  New York:  Twayne,


Kinzer, Stephen.  “Quiet, Please; Chicago is Reading.  The Same Book at the Same Time.”  The

New York Times (28 August 2001):  E1.

Knotts, Jewel. “Letter to the Editors.”  In “The Redemption of Atticus Finch.”  Southern

Cultures 6.4 (2000):  3-4.

Lee, Harper.  To Kill a Mockingbird.  New York:  Lippincott, 1960.

Lippit, Akira M. “Martin Arnold´s Memory Machine.” Afterimage:  The Journal of Media Arts

and Cultural Criticism 24.6 (1997): 8 – 10.

MacDonald, Scott.  “Martin Arnold.”  Interview. Critical Cinema III:  Interviews with

Independent Filmmakers.  Berkeley:  U of California P, 1998.  347-362.

Morris, Gary.  “Compulsive Repetitions:  Short Works by Martin Arnold.”  Bright Lights Film

Journal 25 (1999).  4 January 2004 <http://www.brightlightsfilm.com/25/


Monroe County Heritage Museums Web Page.  14 March 2005 <www.tokillamockingbird.com>.

Ray, Robert B.  The Avant-Garde Finds Andy Hardy.  Cambridge:  Harvard UP, 1995.

Shackelford, Dean.  “The Female Voice in To Kill a Mockingbird:  Narrative Strategies in Film

and Novel.”  The Mississippi Quarterly 50.1 (1996):  101-113.

Smith, Lillian.  Killers of the Dream.  New York:  Norton, 1949.

States, Bert O.  Great Reckonings in Little Rooms:  On the Phenomenology of Theater

Berkeley:  U of California P, 1985.

Suchy, Patricia A. “Sideshadowing and the Metalinguistics of Theatrical Performance.”

Theatre Annual 54 (2001):  1-24.

Sundquist, Eric.  “Blues for Atticus Finch.”  The South as An American Problem.  Ed. Larry J.

Griffith and Don H. Doyle.  Athens, GA:  U of Georgia P, 1996.  181-209.

13 ways to kill a mockingbird.  Dir. Patricia A. Suchy.  HopKins Black Box theatre, Louisiana

State University, Baton Rouge, LA.  21-25 April, 2004.

To Kill a Mockingbird.  Dir. Robert Mulligan.  Adapt. Horton Foote.  Universal, 1962.

Whitley, Carla Jean.  “Monroeville Tries to Shed Mockingbird Image.”  The Crimson White 09

Oct. 2003.  Online Archive.  14 March 2005 <http://www.cw.ua.edu/vnews/display.v/



[1] Marvin Carlson’s “"Theatrical Performance: Illustration, Translation,  Fulfillment, or Supplement?" proposes his title’s various paradigms to express the relation between dramatic texts and their stagings.  For Carlson, the crux of the matter is where one locates the plenitude of significance, on the page or the stage.  Similar questions attend the present installation.  I would, however, suggest a fifth possibility Carlson doesn’t consider: that the plenitude of significance can exist between and among versions, as Bakhtinian dialogue.

[2] The Survey of Lifetime Readers is cited by Johnson (14). While most sources concur, some sources citing this same study identify TKM as number four on the list, preceded by, in order,  The Bible, Ayn Rand’s Atlas Shrugged, and  M. Scott Peck’s The Road Less Traveled.  I have been unable to locate the original survey to clear up the confusion.

[3] Because I kept meeting dogs named Scout as I was researching TKM, my Scout joined the cast of 13 ways; he appeared in several of our videos and during the performances as a small roving “installation” unto himself.  Here I was partially inspired by Bert O. States’ discussion of “things that resist being either signs or images” when placed upon the stage:  working clocks, fire, water, child actors, and stage animals (29-34).

[4]  Tourists of Monroeville tend to share this kind of frame slippage, which the small tourist industry in Monroeville seems to have helped to construct.  There is a statue of Atticus Finch outside of the courthouse in Monroeville.  As Jay Clarke observes, “Step inside the courtroom in the Old Courthouse here and you can almost feel the presence of Atticus Finch in To Kill a Mockingbird.  Visitors touch the attorney’s table, the witness chair and the judge’s bench with a reverence that is remarkable.  It is especially so considering that To Kill a Mockingbird is a novel and a movie, and Finch is a fictional character” (H6).  For an account of the controversy over Freedman’s editorial, see Johnson 18-19.  Along with Bakhtin’s mock literary trials, Johnson also inspired our trial of Atticus Finch with her characterization of this controversy as a public “trial” of Finch (18).

[5] “The Trial of Atticus Finch” is sometimes tightly, sometimes loosely, adapted from Joseph Crespino’s essay.  Additional texts adapted for the trial include Letters to the Editor in response to Crespino’s essay; “Blues for Atticus Finch,” an essay by Eric Sundquist that Crespino cites; Johnson’s text; Freedman’s editorial and responses to it; the text of TKM itself; and the film adaptation of TKM.

[6] The “Flaming Arrow Oath” comes from a clip included in Philippe Mora’s documentary, Brother Can You Spare a Dime?, a rhetorical, dialectical montage of archival and ephemeral film from the Great Depression.  In one sequence, Mora follows a clip from the 1937 Hollywood feature, Black Legion, wherein Humphrey Bogart’s character who has lost out on a job to a “foreigner” joins a KKK-like organization and takes a membership oath at gunpoint, with a clip of a group of very white children in the Flaming Arrows initiation ritual.  I have been unable to locate any details about this club—it may be a fiction from a feature film, or, more likely, some sort of short produced for children’s matinees that featured western serials.

[7] The testimony “Sundquist” gives in our trial scene does not precisely coincide with the essay by Sundquist in the list of works cited, although the spirit of his remarks is unchanged.  Here I relied partially on Crespino’s summary of Sundquist and on some of Crespino’s own arguments.  I apologize to the historical persons in the trial for violating the boundaries of their respective utterances.  When things like this happen in the trial, it is mostly a product of trying to get Crespino’s argument out on the table but not always from our “Crespino” character.  Given the dramatic context of the trial, the attorneys could not do all of the talking.  I also tried very hard to balance the arguments; I wanted the verdict to be an open question.  Finally, some of the rearrangements had to do with practical matters like casting and time constraints. 

[8] The chant of “Tiger Bait!” during Flynt’s testimony originates in a sports rivalry between Auburn and LSU.

[9] This scene appearing here as Installation Ten was staged with Tom Robinson on one side of the large projection screen that bisected our playing space, and Mayella, Scout, Jem, and Mrs. Dubose on the other side.  The audience had to choose whom to watch.  The screen surface was rear-projection, such that an image projected upon it could be seen on both sides (one in reverse, as a mirror image).  However, live performances could only “bleed through” acoustically.  It was my intention with this staging to suggest both Johnson’s “gothic boundaries” in TKM and the constructions and transgressions of color lines under Jim Crow.

[10] Mayella’s Chifforobe of Wonders is based on montage sequence that played in a monitor installed in “Mayella Ewell’s chifforobe” on the stage.  Its alphabetic structure was inspired by Roland Barthes’ autobiography via surrealist film critic Robert B. Ray.  Ray characterizes Barthes’ method as “the apotheosis of its author’s embrace of fragmentation and the most explicit acknowledgment of his fetishism” (120).  I had in mind to “contain” my own fetishes regarding TKM in this installation—the chifforobe itself a fetish object or perhaps a metonym for Mayella’s dangerous desire for Tom Robinson.

           [11] For an analysis of the potential influence of the Emmett Till lynching and trials on TKM, see Chura’s essay in the list of Works Cited.

Credits for HopKins Black Box theatre Production

The Department of Communication Studies, Performance Studies Area, presents

13 ways to kill a mockingbird

Compiled, adapted, written & directed by Patricia A. Suchy

Assistant Director……………………Linda Shkreli

Stage Manager………………………Stefani Arnold

Director of Photography/Editor….Thomas E. Moran

Chief Editor………………………….Ann Glaviano

Assistant DP………………………..Bradley Furnish

Lighting Designers...…Sara Dunlap & Linda Shkreli

Production Assistant……...………….Chrissy Mincy

Design Assistant……...………………..Katie Logan

Guest Artist………….……………Janis L. Edwards


James Brown as Joseph Crespino, Tom Robinson

Andy Causey as Atticus Finch, Birdwatcher, Musician

Sara Dunlap as Scout, Miss Maudie, Judge, Birdwoman, Narrator

Jessica Ketcham as Scout, Eric Sundquist, Chick, Wayne Flynt, Mayella Ewell

Stephen Melancon as Jem, James Carville, Birdman, Variety Critic

Oli Mohammadi as Ham, Scout, Bailiff, Chick

Amanda Sadat as Mrs. Dubose, Birdwatcher, Lillian Smith

Tiffany Walter as Monroe Freedman, Birdwatcher, Jewell Knotts, Scout

Scout as Tim Johnson and himself

Light board operator:  Chrissy Mincy

Sound operator:  Cassie Manley

Projectionist:  Gretchen Stein

Video Editors:  Kenny Benitez, Ann Glaviano, Thomas E. Moran, Trish Suchy

Camera operators: Thomas E. Moran, Jacob Robbins

Video production staff:  Brooke Arceneaux, Kenny Benitez, Colleen Fava, Bradley Furnish, Ann Glaviano, Katie Logan, Cassie Manley, Thomas E. Moran, Jacob Robbins, Linda Shkreli, Jeremy Theriot

Poufy pink dress designed and constructed by:  Linda Shkreli and Ruth Bowman

Ham designed and constructed by:  Brooke Arceneaux

Sound Advisor:  Les LeBlanc

House Manager:  Danielle Sears

Box Office:  Tiwa Saechou, Jacque Burleson, David Pye, David Terry

“Trampin’” and “Go Down Moses” in the Monroeville video performed by the Monroe County International Mass Choir

HopKins Black Box theatre Staff:

Managing Director:  Michael S. Bowman

Operating Director:  Ruth Laurion Bowman

Director of Public Relations:  Patricia A. Suchy

Theatre Manager:  Jacque Burleson

Additional support for digital video production provided by LSU’s Laboratory for Creative Arts and Technology (L-CAT)

Credits for Liminalities Production

Compiled, adapted, written and staged by Patricia A. Suchy

Assistant video editor:  Megan Volpert

Rehearsal web hosting: LSU Arts & Sciences Communication Studio (Studio 151)

Thanks to Studio 151 Coordinator Kevin DiBenedetto

Please see HopKins Black Box theatre credits above for folks whose work is included here

Special thanks to Christie Logan for her thoughtful comments and suggestions

for Mr. Suchy in consideration of love and affection

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