1. George W. Bush.  "President Reiterates Goal on Homeownership."  Delivered June 18, 2002.  Accessed online December 1, 2005.

2. Released September 17, 2002.  Accessed online December 1, 2005.

3. All in-text emphasis added.  "Remarks by National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice on Terrorism and Foreign Policy."  Delivered April 29, 2002.  Accessed online December 1, 2005.

4. Quoted in Dan Balz and Bob Woodward, "Bush Awaits History's Judgment."  Washington Post  February 3, 2002.  Sunday edition: A01. 

5. Quoted in Alex Callinicos, The New Mandarins of American Power (2003), page 64.

6. Kenneth Roth, "U.S: Errs in Geneva Convention Rules."  Posted February 2, 2002.  Accessed online December 1, 2005.  And, Sonia Cardenas, "The Geneva Trap."  Posted March 25, 2005.  Accessed online December 1, 2005.

7. For a comparative analysis between the wars on drugs and poverty and the war on terrorism, see Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, Multitude (2004), page 13-14.

8. For the selectivity of the definition and application of terrorism, see: Judith Butler, Precarious Life (2004), pages 4-7; Callinicos (2003), pages 11-14; and Noam Chomsky, Hegemony or Survival (2003), pages 109-10 and 188-91.

9. For the diversity of definitions, see these four online postings, all accessed December 1, 2005:
;;; and

10. Here are two excellent sources on this "go shopping" ordeal.  Janine Jackson, "Patriotic Shopping."  Posted November/December 2001.  And Jill Vardy, "Shopping is Patriotic, Leaders Say."  Originally published in National Post.  Found at  Both accessed online December 1, 2005.

11. PAX:  Pronounced “paks,” meaning peace, long duration of peace, or a state of imposed peace.  It has become associated with empire, imperialism, and/or expansionism.

12. Ari Fleischer.  “Bill Maher’s Comments.”  September 26, 2001 Press Briefing.  Accessed online December 1, 2005.

13. Much of the information for this section comes from the following sources.  Stanley Aronowitz and Heather Gautney (Eds.), Implicating Empire (2003).  Noam Chomsky, Year 501: The Conquest Continues (1993).  Philip McMichael, Development and Social Change: A Global Perspective (2000).

14. For sustained background information on this situation, visit the National Security Archive,  Accessed online December 1, 2005.

15. "Address Before a Joint Session of the Congress on the State of the Union."  Delivered February 6, 1985.  Accessed online December 1, 2005.

16. Much of the information from this section comes from the following sources.  David Held and Anthony McGrew (Eds.), The Global Transformations Reader (2003).  Fredric Jameson and Masao Miyoshi (Eds.), The Cultures of Globalization (2003 ed.).  William K. Tabb, Unequal Partners: A Primer on Globalization (2002).

17. The Lexus and the Olive Tree:  Understanding Globalization (2000).

18. For statistics, see the joint study by the Institute for Policy Studies and United for a Fair Economy:  Study dated August 31, 2004.  Accessed online December 1, 2005.

19. For statistics on global poverty, see the United Nations' Human Development Report 2002: Deepening Democracy in a Fragmented World (2002).

20. Much of the information from this section comes from five sources.  Steve Coll, Ghost Wars: The Secrete History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001 (2004).  Chalmers Johnson, Blowback: The Cost and Consequences of American Empire (2004 ed.).  Stanley Hoffman, "Why Don't They like Us?" American Prospect Online. Posted November 19, 2001.  Larry Everest, "The Consequence of Empire."  Znet.  Posted online November 2001.  And the Third World Traveler website,  All online posts accessed December 1, 2005.

21. Ronald Reagan.  "By the President of the United States of America.  Proclamation 4908--Afghanistan Day."  Proclaimed March 10, 1982.  Accessed online December 1, 2005.

22. We recommend that folks read the full transcript of the letter.  As of December 1, 2005, it can be accessed at,11581,845725,00.html.

23. George W. Bush.  "President Bush Holds Press Conference."  Delivered March 13, 2002.  Accessed online December 1, 2005.

24. For a look at the build up, the lack of evidence, and official documents, see John Prados, Hoodwinked:  The Documents that Reveal How Bush Sold Us a War (2004).

25. Most of the following information is taken from the website of Foreign Policy in Focus,  See, in particular, Phyllis Bennis, Erik Leaver, and the IPS Iraq Task Force: “The Iraq Quagmire: The Mounting Costs of War and the Case for Bringing the Troops Home.”  Posted August 31, 2005.  Accessed December 1, 2005.  Also, see:

26. Quotes are taken from different sections of the “National Security Strategy.”  Released September 17, 2002.  Accessed online December 1, 2005.

27. George W. Bush.  “Remarks by the President and Virginia Gubernatorial Candidate Mark Earley in Photo Opportunity.”  Delivered July 26, 2001.  Accessed online December 1, 2005.

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